Amoxicillin is one of the most effective antibacterial bactericidal drugs. Many bacterial infections have been successfully treated. The active substance irreversibly destroys the cellular structure of harmful bacteria. As a result, the growth of pathogenic microflora slows down. It results in the rapid death of pathogens.
The instructions for Amoxicillin indicate that it is an antibiotic of the penicillin class. A broad-spectrum drug destroys streptococci, listeria, some staphylococci, Escherichia coli, salmonella, enterococci, Helicobacter pylori, Shigella, and other pathogenic microorganisms.
The antibiotic acts on penicillin-binding proteins of pathogenic bacteria. Thus, it disrupts the synthesis of peptidoglycan – the main substance that the bacterial cell wall consists of. Having received severe injuries at the micro-level, pathogens of infectious diseases quickly die.
This medication is most effective in the fight against microorganisms such as streptococci, listeria, and enterococci. Chlamydia, Legionella, Klebsiella, Mycoplasma, Acinetobacter are resistant to the effects of Amoxicillin.
The drug penetrates freely through the shells of organs and tissues and penetrates directly into the cells. The oral form of the drug is absorbed in the intestine. After one to two hours, the drug can be easily detected in body fluids.
Taking this medicine, you can not change the usual diet. Doctors are allowed to drink an antibiotic before meals, and after breakfast, lunch or dinner. During treatment, a special drinking regimen should be observed.
An antibiotic is excreted from the body along with urine, so kidney disease directly affects the drug’s effectiveness.
Unlike similar drugs, Amoxicillin tablets are absorbed into the blood faster. As a result, the desired concentration of the active component is achieved in a short period of time.
Another useful property identified as a result of Amoxicillin use is resistance to the effects of gastric juice. Due to this, the antibiotic is well fit for oral use.
Indications for use
A broad-spectrum antibiotic helps get rid of various infections that affect various organs and systems. As a rule, doctors recommend this drug for the treatment of infectious diseases caused by the development of streptococci. Among the most common diseases of this origin are:
- infections of the upper respiratory tract and ENT organs (otitis media, sinusitis, tonsillitis, frontal sinusitis);
- bacterial diseases of the lower respiratory tract (community-acquired pneumonia, acute bronchitis and chronic bronchitis, which has passed into the acute stage);
- kidney and urinary tract diseases (cystitis, pyelonephritis);
- intestinal infections (enteritis, colitis);
- infectious skin and soft tissues lesions (phlegmon, abscess, erysipelas);
- Lyme disease.
In combination with metronidazole, Amoxicillin is effective in the treatment of chronic gastritis, as well as peptic ulcer of the stomach and duodenum.
According to scientific data, the probability of successful treatment of respiratory tract infections with this antibiotic is equal to 90%.
The instruction for use also indicates the conditions for preventive drug use. It is prescribed for patients with a high risk of endocarditis. An antibiotic is sometimes included in the medical arsenal of dentists (a bactericidal agent is relevant for prosthetics and tooth extraction).
Mode of application
It is strictly forbidden to independently specify the dosage for antibiotic treatment. To exclude possible side effects, as well as ensure the treatment effectiveness, you need to carefully study the instructions for the use of Amoxicillin. As a rule, the instructions for Amoxicillin clearly indicate the recommended course duration.
Exceeding the treatment period is not recommended. This is fraught with the development of antibiotic resistance and a decrease in its effectiveness. A second treatment course with Amoxicillin according to the instructions is possible only after a few months. To exclude the likelihood of resistance, you should combine the drug with other antibiotic options.
Dosage and administration
The optimal therapeutic dose is prescribed by the attending physician. Self-medication is very dangerous because each infection implies a special regimen for the drug application. The maximum daily dosage of Amoxicillin is 3 g.
Adult patients, as well as children over 10 years of age and weighing over 40 kg, can take no more than 250-500 mg once. As a rule, an antibiotic is taken 3 times a day with an 8-hour interval. For successful treatment, it is required to comply with the established therapeutic regimen, without prolonging or decreasing the therapy interval. This will maintain the optimal concentration of antimicrobial agents in the body.
5-10 years old children can be prescribed no more than 250 mg of the drug 3 times a day, the recommended dose for 2-5 years old children is 125 mg. For infants, the daily dosage is set in accordance with body weight: at the rate of 20 mg per kilo. This dose of drug must be divided into 3 portions.
The standard course of antibiotic therapy usually does not exceed 5 to 14 days. With a complex disease course, the dose is sometimes increased to 1000 mg.
The instruction for use indicates that it is a relatively safe antibiotic with a small number of contraindications. Nevertheless, it should be completely abandoned in case of individual intolerance to the main active substance. Hypersensitivity to the drug components is often manifested as an allergic reaction: hives, Quincke’s edema, anaphylactic shock.
Other contraindications include:
- complex liver and kidney dysfunctions;
- acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Sometimes, while taking the drug, abdominal pain occurs, watery stool with blood appears and the temperature rises. These symptoms may indicate pseudomembranous colitis. In this case, it is necessary to stop treatment with the indicated antibiotic as soon as possible.
Amoxicillin in the form of tablets is not prescribed for children under 3 years of age. Also, the drug is not recommended for nursing mothers. The drug easily passes into breast milk and can provoke an allergy and a violation of the intestinal microflora.
Pregnancy and lactation
Amoxicillin is not prohibited for the treatment during gestation. An antibiotic may be used during pregnancy if the intended benefit to the mother outweighs the potential risk to the fetus. The doctor may prescribe this antibacterial drug if the future mother suffers from acute sinusitis, tonsillitis, otitis media, bronchitis or pneumonia. Also among the indications, there are cystitis and pyelonephritis. It is not recommended to take Amoxicillin while breastfeeding.
Exceeding the maximum daily dose of the drug usually occurs with self-medication. An overdose can also occur in patients with infectious diseases of the liver and kidneys. It happens when patients undergo a traditional course of treatment intended for people without nephrological and hepatological pathologies.
In case of an overdose, the patient suffers from abdominal pain, also experiences nausea, the urge to vomit, diarrhea. The patient may have convulsions. Salt crystals are found in the urine.
If an overdose occurs, it is necessary to withdraw the use of Amoxicillin and consult a primary care physician. In a hospital, detoxification therapy can be performed. Gastric lavage is carried out. Activated carbon and laxatives are prescribed. In complex cases, hemodialysis is performed.
Amoxicillin is often used as part of complex therapy. In combination with other medications, it can affect the condition of certain organs and body systems.
The simultaneous administration of Amoxicillin and oral anticoagulants similar to warfarin increases the rate of bleeding. When combining an antibiotic with digoxin, an overdose of both drugs often occurs.
According to the instructions for Amoxicillin, its combination with other antibiotics (tetracycline drugs, erythromycin, sulfonamide antimicrobials) reduces their effectiveness. Simultaneous treatment with amoxicillin trihydrate and methotrexate increases the toxicity of the latter. Such therapy severely impairs the health of the kidneys.
A popular bactericidal drug inhibits the effects of oral contraceptives, which can result in an unplanned pregnancy.
Amoxicillin is incompatible with alcoholic beverages. The interaction of an antimicrobial agent with alcohol can cause an acute allergic reaction, in which a fatal outcome is not excluded. The toxic combination of ethyl alcohol and an antibiotic has a devastating effect on the liver and bile ducts. You can drink alcohol no earlier than 10 days after withdrawing the drug.